This document is intended to assist individuals and organizations who wish to create and manage product offerings with an increasing digital component, or lead their organization through Digital Transformation. It is a synthesis of practices and guidance from a wide variety of practitioners and professional communities active in digital technology. It integrates concepts from diverse sources such as business model innovation, product research and monetization, behavioral economics, Agile, DevOps, Enterprise Architecture, organizational development, service management, product management, data management, operations management, and corporate governance. Through providing an integrated and rationalized framework, based on notable and proven practices and perspectives, this document is positioned as leading guidance for digital technology and management professionals worldwide.

This Snapshot document is intended to make public the direction and thinking for the Digital Practitioner Body of Knowledge Standard. We invite your feedback and guidance. To provide feedback on this Snapshot document, please send comments by email to, or if reading the html edition using the feedback link, no later than December 1, 2023.


This document describes the resources, services, and assets that may be involved in creating and delivering such experiences. It provides guidance for the Digital Practitioner, whether based in a traditional “IT” organization, manufacturing unit, sales, customer support, or embedded in a cutting-edge integrated product team.


Readers are advised to check The Open Group website for any conformance and certification requirements referencing this standard.


For the purposes of this document, the following terminology definitions apply:


Describes a possible feature or behavior available to the user or application.


Describes a feature or behavior that is optional. To avoid ambiguity, the opposite of “may” is expressed as “need not”, instead of “may not”.


Describes a feature or behavior that is a requirement. To avoid ambiguity, do not use “must” as an alternative to “shall”.

Shall not

Describes a feature or behavior that is an absolute prohibition.


Describes a feature or behavior that is recommended but not required.


Same meaning as “shall”; “shall” is the preferred term.

Future Directions

While digital is a fast-evolving field, the intent of this document is to identify the business and technical practices needed for a digital business, and to stay as independent of the implementation technology as possible. However, it is expected that this document will need to be revised from time to time to remain current with both practice and technology. To maintain the coherence of the document in the face of this evolution, a set of Principles of the DPBoK Standard have been established.


For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply. Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary should be referenced for terms not defined in this section.

Body of Knowledge

A collection of knowledge items or areas generally agreed to be essential to understanding a particular subject. (Source: ISO/IEC 24773-1)

Digital Enterprise

An enterprise characterized by: 1. creation of digitalized products or services that are either delivered fully digitally (e.g., digital media or online banking), or 2. where physical products and services are obtained by the customer by digital means (e.g., online car-sharing services).

Digital Technology

IT in the form of a product or service that is digitally consumable to create or enable business value.

Digital Transformation

The radical, fundamental change towards becoming a digital enterprise.


The application of digital technology to create additional business value within the primary value chain of enterprises.


The conversion of analog information into digital form.


An ordered, countable set of activities; an event-driven, value-adding sequence that can be measured and improved.


A good, idea, method, information, object, or service created as a result of a process and serves a need or satisfies a want.

NOTE: It has a combination of tangible and intangible attributes (benefits, features, functions, uses) that a seller offers a buyer for purchase. For example, a seller of a toothbrush offers the physical product and also the idea that the consumer will be improving the health of their teeth. A good or service [must] closely meet the requirements of a particular market and yield enough profit to justify its continued existence.

Product Management

The organizational structure within a business that manages the development, marketing, and sale of a product or set of products throughout the product lifecycle. It encompasses the broad set of activities required to get the product to market and to support it thereafter. (Source: